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Sun. April 29, 2018, 7 p.m. - 10 p.m. Vienna

Umberto Giordano

Andrea Chénier

Conductor: Marco Armiliato, Director: Otto Schenk
With Jonas Kaufmann, Roberto Frontali, Anja Harteros

 
Cast
Synopsis
Gallery
Trailer

Otto Schenk | Director

KSCH Otto Schenk was born in Vienna in 1930 and experienced a childhood strongly influenced by the horrors of the Nazi regime. 
After his education at the Max Reinhardt Seminar, he made his acting debut in Vienna. The first places of appearance in his career were the Theater an der Josefstadt and the Wiener Volkstheater. As of 1953 he also worked as theatre director and as of 1957, as opera director. Very soon his career led him to the world´s most important stages, for example the Wiener Burgtheater, the Münchner Kammerspiele, the New York Met, La Scala in Milan, the ROH Covent Garden, the Bayerische and Hamburgische Staatsoper or the Deutsche Oper Berlin. From 1965 to 1990 he was leading stage director at the Wiener Staatsoper, between 1986 and 1988 he was member of the Board of the Salzburger Festspiele, between 1988 and 1997 director of the Theater in der Josefstadt. Furthermore, he appeared in numerous television plays. He has staged about 30 different operas at the Wiener Staatsoper and furthermore performed as Frosch here.

 

 

Interview Otto Schenk on the "Rosenkavalier"

Marco Armiliato | Conductor

MARCO ARMILIATO studied piano at the Paganini-Conservatoire in his hometown of Genova. In the 90s, he became intensely active in the big opera houses of the world. At the New York Met, he conducted Il trovatore, La Bohème, Stiffelio, Madama Butterfly, Sly, Aida, Turandot, La Fille du Ré­giment and Rigoletto, and at the San Francisco Opera La Bohème, Madama Butterfly, Turandot, La traviata, Tosca, Aida and Ca­valleria rusticana. At the Wiener Staatsoper, where he made his debut in 1996 with Andrea Chénier, he has conducted among others, Il barbiere di Siviglia, La Bohème, Carmen, Cavalleria rusticana, Don Carlo, L’elisir d’amore, Falstaff, La forza del de­stino, Lucia di Lammermoor, Manon, Manon Lescaut, Pagliacci, Simon Boccanegra, Stiffelio, Tosca, La traviata, Turandot and Werther. He received further engagements at the opera houses of Barcelona, Madrid, Zurich, Toronto, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Turin, Rome, at the Deutsche Opera Berlin, the Bavarian State Opera, at the ROH Covent Garden, at the Théâtre du Châtelet and Opéra Bastille in Paris, at the Hamburg State Opera and Verona. He is also internationally successful as a concert conductor.

Jonas Kaufmann | Andrea Chénier

Jonas Kaufmann was born in Munich and is among the most sought-after tenors of the present. He studied vocal arts in Munich and attended master classes with James King, Hans Hotter and Josef Metternich. He began his career in 1994 at the Staatstheater Saarbrücken and very soon received invitations to the Hamburgische Staatsoper, Stuttgart, Chicago, Paris, La Scala, the Metropolitan Opera in New York, the Bayerische and Berliner Staatsoper, to Edinburgh, Tokyo, London, Luzern, Venice, Zurich and Brussels.

In 1999 Jonas Kaufmann made his debut at the Salzburg Festival in Busoni´s Doktor Faustus. He was also very successful as Alfredo (La traviata), Tamino (Die Zauberflöte), Faust (La Damnation de Faust), Parsifal, Stolzing (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg), Max (Der Freischütz), Don José (Carmen), Rodolfo (La Bohème), Cavaradossi (Tosca), Don Carlo, Roméo (Roméo et Juliette), Florestan (Fidelio), Des Grieux (Manon), to only name a few. He made his debut at the Wiener Staatsoper as Tamino and has since then also sung Des Grieux (Manon), Cavaradossi and the title roles in Werther, Faust and Parsifal here.


 

Roberto Frontali | Carlo Gérard

ROBERTO FRONTAL is among the leading baritones of his generation. In the course of his career he has sung numerous roles ranging from Bellini, Donizetti and Rossini to the main roles in the Verdi operas Don Carlo, Falstaff, Ernani, Il trovatore, Simon Boccanegra, Un ballo in maschera, Luisa Miller, Attila, Rigoletto and I vespri siciliani. Recently Roberto Frontali has appeared in operas such as Eugen Onegin, Andrea Chénier, Fanciulla del West, Adriana Lecouvreur, Cavalleria rusticana, Pagliacci, Falstaff, Stiffelio, Il tabarro and Gianni Schicchi. Performances regularly lead him to the New York Metropolitan Opera, La Scala in Milan, the Rossini festival in Pesaro, the ROH Covent Garden, the Teatro La Fenice in Venice, to Tokyo, Rome, Geneva, Dresden, San Francisco, Moscow, Buenos Aires. Roberto Frontali made his debut at the Wiener Staatsoper in 1992 as Figaro (Il barbiere di Siviglia) and has since sung roles such as Enrico (Lucia di Lammermoor), Belcore (L’elisir d’amor), Posa (Don Carlo), Sir Riccardo Forth (I puritani), Nottingham (Roberto Devereux) and Giorgio Germont (La traviata) here.

 

Anja Harteros | Maddalena di Coigny

The international career of Anja Harteros began in 1999 with her win of the Cardiff Singer of the World competition, which brought the singer in no time at all to all the most important stages in the world: the Metropolitan Opera, the Milan Scala, the Royal Opera House Covent Garden, the Staatsopern in Munich, Vienna, Berlin, Hamburg and Dresden, the Opera Houses in Florence, Amsterdam, Paris, Geneva, Tokyo as well as the Salzburger Festivals. Her versatile repertoire includes such parts like Mimì (La Bohème), Elisabetta (Don Carlos), Desdemona (Otello), Violetta (La traviata), Amelia (Simon Boccanegra), Alice (Falstaff), Micaëla (Carmen), Fiordiligi (Così fan tutte), Contessa d’Almaviva (Le nozze di Figaro), Donna Anna (Don Giovanni), Elettra (Idomeneo), Agathe (Der Freischütz), Eva (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg), Elisabeth (Tann­häuser), Elsa (Lohengrin) as well as the leading roles in Alcina, Arabella and Traviata. In recognition of her artistic achievements, in July 2007 she was awarded the title of Bavarian Chamber Singer. She made her debut at the Wiener Staatsoper in 1999 as Mimì and also sang among others Micaëla, Donna Anna, Contessa d’Almaviva, Eva, Feldmarschallin, Desdemona and Alcina.




 

Donna Ellen | Gräfin di Coigny

DONNA ELLEN comes from Canada and studied singing at the Wilfrid Laurier University of her hometown. For two seasons, she sang at the Canada Opera Piccola under the care of Leopold Simoneau and Pierette Alarie, before she changed to the Opernstudio in Zurich. In1987, she became engaged with the Landestheater Linz, where she sang roles like the Queen of the Night, Blonde, and Zer­lina and sang in the premiere of Balduin Sulzers Proteus. Previous performances include among others, in Stuttgart, Geneva, Berlin, Bad Ischl, in the Musikverein and the Konzerthaus in Vienna. In 2004, she gave her debut at the Volksoper. Her debut at the Wiener Staatsoper, where she is an honorary ensemble member, was in 2003 as Helmwige. Since then, she has sang among others, Marzellina (Barbiere di Siviglia), Axinja (Lady Macbeth von Mzensk), Leitmetzerin (Rosenkavalier), Annina (Traviata), Curra (Forza del destino), Brünnhilde (Nibelungenring for children), Königin (Traumfresserchen), Berta (Pünktchen und Anton), Marcellina (Nozze di Figaro), Fekluša (Kátja Kabanová), Kar­tenaufschlägerin (Arabella), Aufseherin (Elektra), and Dirne (Aus einem Totenhaus), Giovanna (Rigoletto).  
 

Zoryana Kushpler | Madelon

Zoryana Kushpler was born in Lviv (Ukraine). At the age of five she took piano lessons with her mother, later she changed to the violin. From 1993 on she studied vocal arts in her father´s class at the University of Music in Lviv. In 1998 she changed to the University of Music in Hamburg. Performances have led her for example to Zurich, Geneva, Venice, Milan, Florence, Hamburg, Berlin, London and to Bern, where she was member of the ensemble of the Stadttheater Bern from 2004 to 2006. There, she interpreted roles like Sesto (Giulio Cesare) or Preziosilla (Forza del destino). She sang Adelaide (Arabella) at the Oper Graz and Carmen, Giulietta (Contes d’Hoffmann), Maddalena (Rigoletto) and Prinz Orlofsky at the Volksoper.



She made her debut at the Wiener Staatsoper in 2007 as Adelaide. Here, she also performed (selection) Polina and Daphnis (Pique Dame), Olga (Eugen Onegin), Giulietta (Les Contes d'Hoffmann), Fenena (Nabucco), Suzuki (Madama Butterfly), Ulrica (Un ballo in maschera), Prinz Orlofsky (Die Fledermaus) and Preziosilla (La forza del destino).



Roles at the Wiener Staatsoper 2013/ 2014: e.g. Smeton, Orlofsky, Lola, Marthe, Fenena.

Alexandru Moisiuc | Fouquier Tinville

ALEXANDRU MOISIUC was born in Bucharest and completed his violin studies at the Enescu University of Music. In 1980 he began his opera singing studies at the Porumbescu Music Academy. In 1984 he made his debut at the Bucharest National Opera in Werther, where he was engaged as soloist. In 1991 he was engaged at the Wiener Kammeroper as Don Giovanni, and went on a tour to Japan and South Korea with the Kammeroper. In 1992 he became 1st soloist at the National Opera in Temesvar, two years later his collaboration with the Wiener Staatsoper began, where he has been a soloist ever since. In 1990 he started working as singing teacher at the Bucharest Music Academy. Performances have led the artist to La Scala in Milan, the Semperoper, the Alte Oper Frankfurt, the Palais des Beaux-Artes in Brussels, the Herodes Atticus in Athens. His repertoire includes more than 50 of the most important roles of his fach, spanning four centuries and ranging from Monteverdi to Schönberg. 
 

Wolfgang Bankl | Mathieu

KS WOLFGANG BANKL comes from Vienna, received training in Violin and studied singing, Lied and Oratorium as well as opera at the Conservatoire of Vienna. He received initial engagements at the Vienna Kammeroper, the Opera House Kiel and the Tiroler Landestheater. Guest performances led him, among others, to Zurich, Hamburg, Cologne, Barcelona, Salzburg, Strasbourg, the Milan Scala, to the Vienna Festwochen, Bregenz, Tokyo, Tel Aviv, Rome and Paris. He recently gave his debut as Baron Ochs auf Lerchenau in Dresden under the direction of Christian Thielemann. Together with Norbert Pfafflmeyer, Harald Kollegger and Schmerzhel v. Solchgemut, he established the travelling Kleinfestival Giro d’Arte. Since 1993, he is an ensemble member of the Wiener Staatsoper and has since then sung here among others: Papageno, Alberich (Rheingold), Doktor (Wozzeck), Klingsor, Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Harašta (Schlaues Füchslein), Frank, Graf Waldner, Bartolo (Il barbiere di Siviglia), Hauptmann (Boris Godunow), Ochs, Geisterbote (Die Frau ohne Schatten), Tierbändiger/Athlet (Lulu), Ringender (Die Jakobsleiter), Zirkusdirektor (Der Riese vom Steinfeld), La Roche, Leporello, Dreieinigkeitsmoses (Mahagonny), Swallow (Peter Grimes). He has been awarded the title "Österreichischer Kammersänger".
 

Benedikt Kobel | Abbé

Benedikt Kobel comes from Vienna and studied at the Hochschule for Music and performing Arts there. Guest performances have led him to the Semperoper, to Leipzig, Cologne, Frankfurt, the Gärtnerplatztheater, the Zurich Opera, the Graz Oper, the Festival dei Due Mondi in Spoleto, the Arena di Verona and the Vienna Volksoper. In 1986, Benedikt Kobel gave his debut at the Vienna State Opera as 1st Gondoliere (La Gioconda). This was followed, among other, by Arturo (Lucia di Lammermoor), Kunz Vogel­gesang (Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg), Raffaele (Stiffelio), Narraboth (Salome), Steuermann (Fliegender Holländer), Malcolm (Macbeth), Don Curzio (Le nozze di Figaro), Valzacchi (Der Rosenkavalier), Henry (Die schweigsame Frau), Don Gaspar (La Favorite), Oloferno (Lucrezia Borgia), Spoletta (Tosca), Andres (Wozzeck), Dr. Blind (Die Fledermaus), Abdallo (Nabucco), Monostatos und 1st Priest (Zauberflöte), Goro (Madama Butterfly), Rodrigo (Otello), Tschaplitzki (Pique Dame), Jaquino (Fidelio), Ed­mondo (Manon Lescaut), Missail (Boris Godunow), Cajus (Falstaff) and Schmidt (Werther). 

Carlos Osuna | Incroyable

CARLOS OSUNA was born in Mazatlán (Mexico) and studied vocal arts in his home country and at the Cardiff International Academy of Voice. In 2009 he became member of the opera studio of the Basel Theatre and took master classes with Grace Bumbry and Francisco Araiza as well as with Mirella Freni, Kiri Te Kanawa, Ileana Cotrubas, José Carreras and Sherril Milnes. The tenor for example received invitations to the Verbier Festival, the Welsh National Opera, the Opéra National de Lorraine in Nancy, the Festival Internacional de Santander. He celebrated great triumphs as (excerpt) Nemorino, Rodolfo, Pinkerton, in the title role Werther, as Beppe in Pagliacci and in Aus einem Totenhaus. Furthermore, Carlos Osuna is also very successful on the world´s concert stages. At the Wiener Staatsoper he for example sang Abdallo (Nabucco), Hauptmann (Simon Boccanegra), Gaston (La traviata), Aladdin (Aladdin und die Wunder­lampe, Kinderoper), Der große Sträfling (Aus einem Totenhaus), Beppe, Tebaldo (I vespri siciliani), Scaramuccio, (Ariadne auf Naxos), Narraboth (Salome), Hirt (Tristan und Isolde), Sir Hervey (Anna Bolena).

 

Marcus Pelz | Haushofmeister

MARCUS PELZ was born in Stuttgart, studied solo vocals, lied and oratorio, classical operetta as well as the fach Old Music at the Conservatory of Vienna and graduated from the opera school of the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna. First engagements at the Landestheater St. Pölten, the Wiener Kammeroper (1995-1997) and the Neue Oper Wien were the basis for his engagement at the Wiener Staatsoper (member of the ensemble since 1999). Guest engagements for example led him to the Teatro Avenida in Buenos Aires in the leading role of Wozzeck, and to the Maggio Musicale in Florence with the Rosenkavalier. His repertoire in the House on the Ring includes more than eighty parts, e.g. Hermann, Gregorio, Schaunard, Notar and Polizeikommissar, Kothner and Konrad Nachtigall, Sprecher and 2. Priester, Antonio, Phorbas, Angelotti, Donald, Gualtiero Raleigh, Alessio, Masetto, Haly, Johann, 1. Schäfer, Albert, Altgesell and Saretzki. His appearances in children´s operas on the roof of the Wiener Staatsoper are very popular among the young audience. 

Dan Paul Dumitrescu | Dumas

Dan Paul Dumitrescu was born in Bucharest (Romania) in 1966. Initially he studied clarinet, then voice at the Music Academy in Bucharest. In 1996 he attended the International Academy for Opera in Verona. Immediately after completing his vocal studies at the Music Academy, he was engaged at the Bucharest Opera. He has won numerous national and international singing competitions.

Dan Paul Dumitrescu appeared as a guest on important stages, for example, the Royal Albert Hall, the Arena di Verona, La Scala in Milan, the New Israeli Opera, the Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, the Wiener Musikverein, furthermore he performed in Munich, Budapest, Berlin, Paris, Tokyo and at the Salzburg Festival.

In 2000 he made his debut at the Wiener Staatsoper and has been a member of the company since 2001. His repertoire includes more than 50 bass roles, e.g. Sarastro, Pimen, Gremin, Procida, Enrico VIII., Ramfis, Pistola, Sparafucile, Banquo, Raimondo, Oroveso, Graf Des Grieux, Balthazar, Colline, Timur, Pietro, Grenvil, Graf Rodolfo, Mönch and Großinquisitor (Don Carlos in italian and french version).

Ayk Martirossian | Schmidt

AYK MARTIROSSIAN was born in Armenia and studied at the Russian Gnessin Academy. He was a soloist at the New Opera Theatre Moscow from 1994-1996, and from 1996-2004, soloist at the Bolchoi Theatre. Performances have taken him to the Bavarian State Opera, the Met, Teatro Massimo di Palermo, Teatro La Fenice, Tokyo Opera, Teatro Lirico di Trieste, to San Francisco, Canadian Opera, Las Palmas, Tel Aviv, Florenz, Turin, Lisbon and Hamburg. His repertoire includes Zaccaria, Fiesco, Lord Sidney, Balthasar, Basilio, Ferrando, Boris, Pimen, Gremin, Colline, Fafner, Geronte, Padre Guardiano, Raimondo, Alvise, Oroveso, Sparafucile, Timur, Il Grande Inquisitore, Filippo II, Don Ruy Gomez de Silva. He has worked with conductors such as Zubin Mehta, Renato Polumbo, Marcelo Viotti, Seiji Ozawa, Paolo Carigniani, Fabio Luisi, Michael Tilson Thomas, Asher Fisch and Simone Young. He is a Member of the Ensemble at the Vienna State Opera and gave his debut performance here in 1998. Here, he has performed such roles as King (Aida), Old Slave Labourer (Lady Macbeth von Mzensk), High Priest of Bel (Nabucco).

Ilseyar Khayrullova | Bersi

The young mezzosoprano Ilseyar Khayrullova was born in 1987 in Tatarstan in Russia. In 2006, she graduated from the Tatarstan Music College, and went on to study at the Rimski-Korsakow-Conservatoire in St. Petersburg, from which she graduated from in 2012. Ilseyar Khayrullova is a prize winner of the international competition Playing Slominsky 2012 in St. Petersburg. From 2010, Ilseyar Khayrullova was seen in different studio productions from the St. Petersburg Conservatoire, among others as Cherubino in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Le nozze di Figaro, Clarisse in Sergei Prokofiews Die Liebe zu den drei Orangen, Olga in Peter Iljitsch Tschaikowskis Eugen Onegin and Martha in Tschai­kowskis Iolanta. Further roles include Azucena in Giuseppe Verdis Il trovatore, Kontschakowna in Alexander Borodins Prinz Igor, Orfeo in Christoph Willibald Glucks Orfeo ed Euridice and Polina in Peter Iljitsch Tschaikowskis Pique Dame. Since the 2013/2014 season, Ilseyar Khayrullo is an ensemble member of the Vienna State Opera, where she made her debut as the third Elf in Rusalka.

Boaz Daniel | Roucher

DANIEL BOAZ was born in Tel Aviv, studied in the University there, and then continued his vocal studies from 1996 to 1999 in the Conservatoire of Vienna. In 1999, he received the promotional prize in the Eberhard Waechter-Medaille in Vienna. In 1998, he became an ensemble member of the Wiener Staatsoper, where his repertoire includes, among others, works ranging from Conte d’Almaviva (Le nozze di Figaro), Sharpless (Madama Butterfly), Belcore (L’elisir d’amore), Paolo (Simon Boccanegra), Marcello (La Bohème), Enrico (Lucia di Lammermoor), Kurwenal (Tristan und Isol­de), Lescaut (Manon Lescaut), Ford (Falstaff), Klingsor (Parsifal), Rangoni (Boris Godunow), Valentin (Faust), Rodrigo (Don Carlo), Jeletzki (Pique Dame), Sonora (La fanciulla del West), Heerrufer (Lohengrin) to Gunther (Götterdämmerung). He received repeated invitations to the ROH Covent Garden, the Deutsche Oper Berlin, the New Israeli Opera, the Dresdner Semperoper, to Chicago, Turin, Salzburg, San Francisco, Frankfurt and Barcelona. Recently, he has celebrated success in the Lyric Opera of Chicago in Ernani, as well as in Don Giovanni in Graz, in Tel Aviv in Un ballo in maschera, and in Tristan und Isolde in Hamburg, Berlin and London.


 

Act1 The palace of the Comtesse de Coigny is being prepared for a sumptuous soirée during the final days of the Ancien Régime. Charles Gérard, valet de chamber and son of the elderly gardner, vociferously expresses his hatred of aristocratic society and its superficial world. The Comtesse de Coigny appears with her daughter Madeleine (Maddalena), with whom Gérard is hopelessly in love. They are accompanied by Bersi, confidante and Abigail. The Comtesse reproaches her daughter, who has not yet dressed for the party. In conversation with Bersi, Madeleine discloses how tiresome she finds modern fashion and the foolish behavior of the aristocracy. The guests start to arrive and the celebration commences. There is an entertainment in rococo style in which Pierre Fléville, a vainglorious novelist, and the abbé monopolise the conversation. Talk centres on the revolution which is allegedly imminent. However, nobody takes the matter very seriously. The young poet André (Andrea) Chénier, a guest of Fléville’s, is introduced. The Comtesse asks him to recite some of his poetry, but Chénier declines to do so. Madeleine makes a bet with her friends that she will be able to make André change his mind. She provokes him by expecting him to sing the praises of love. However, André’s reaction to this challenge is to extol his fatherland and the new principles of freedom and humanity in a harsh political accusation. Chénier has caused a scandal, and the company is outraged. Only Madeleine and Gérard agree with Chénier. Inspired by André’s courageous song, Gérard leads a crowd of starving peasants into the salon. The peasants lament their fate. When the comtesse takes him to task, Gérard gets quite carried away and shocks her with slogans of the revolution. He accuses the comtesse of holding her celebrations at the expense of the poor and declares himself on the side of the oppressed. The comtesse dismisses Gérard on the spot. However, the party continues… Act 2 The revolution has degenerated into Robespierre’s reign of terror. People live in fear of the Revolutionary Tribunal, the death sentence and the guillotine. Gérard has been promoted to the Chamber of Deputies.  André, though he had previously extolled the ideals of the revolution, is now suspected of counter-revolutionary activities and is being watched by the police. Madeliene has taken refuge with Bersi, and she too is being persecuted. Gérard is still consumed by his unhappy love for her. In front of the Café Hottot near the Seine an incroyable, a police insormer charged with searching for Madeleine, is trying to provoke Bersi. The latter is obliged to walk the streets in order to be able to feed her former mistress. Half seriously, half cynically, Bersi pretends to be a real daughter of the revolution, maintaining that she feels quite at home in this Milieu. However, the incroyable becomes suspicious when he notices Bersi and André exchanging glances. Chénier is joined by his friend Roucher, who advises him to leave the capital as quickly as possible as his name is already on the Public Prosecutor’s list. But André is bewildered by sparkling, anonymous letters from a mysterious lady which have awoken in him for the first time the feeling of true love, and refuses to leave the city. Roucher attempts to convince him that the letters can only come from a merveilleuse, one of the street-walkers of the time, and hands him a pass. André, however is determined to first find the writer of the letters. Bersi also begs him to wait for a lady who is in great danger. The incroyable, who has also been hired by Gérard to look for Madeleine, draws his own conclusions: Chénier – suspected of being a counter-revolutionary – has been receiving messages from Bersi, who, though reduced to being a street walker, was once Madelein’s confidante – and thus an aristocrat: André and Madeleine must therefore be conspirators. André recognizes the lady whom Bersi has talked of as Madeleine, who also admits to being the author of the mysterious letters. She tells him how Bersi has sheltered her; however, now they are on her trail. She asks André for protection, although she knows that he, too, is in danger. The couple declare their love for one another. They swear to be faithful until death and decide to flee. Suddenly Gérard appears, having been summoned by the incroyable, who has betrayed the couple. Roucher escapes with Madeleine. Chénier draws a dagger which he has concealed in his walking stick and wounds Gérard with it. The incroyable tries to pursue the fleeting couple, but Roucher threatens him with a pistol. Although he has been wounded, Gérard has not completely forgotten his previous sympathy for André, nor his frustrated love for Madeleine. He helps André to flee: “Protect Madeleine!” – however, Chénier’s name is already on the list of Public Prosecutor Fouquier-Tinville. Act 3 In the Committee of Public Safety Matthieu stirs up the people against the enemies of the Regvolution, for the fatherland is endangered. In a fierce speech Gérard, who has recovered from his injury, calls on the people to be prepared to make sacrifices if necessary: the whole of Europe is against the French. The woman sacrifice their jewellery, the fathers their wages, the mothers – their sons. The old, blind Madelon is lead in by her grandson. Her son Roger, she says, fell in the storming of the Bastille and her eldest son lies buried near Valmy. She has now come to offer the services of the young boy leading her for the fatherland. Whilst the exuberant crowd is dancing the carmagnole, the incroyable reports to Gérard that Chénier has been arrested at a friend’s house. He assures him that there is no need to worry about Madeleine: she will soon turn up of her own accord in the hope of rescuing her loved one. He asks Gérard to specify thee charge, as Fouquier-Tinville is waiting. Gérard realizes that the ideals of the revolution for which he fought – the noble intention of helping the poor and oppressed – have turned into depravity, lies and hate. Gérard is conscience-stricken, particularly as he himself – tormented by his frustrated love – has also become a traitor and maligner. Madeleine turns up just as the incroyable predicted she would. Gérard confesses how much he loves her, and how much he has loved her ever since the time when they played together as children in the Palace Gardens. But the hoplessness of ever being able to possess her has made him betray Chénier. Madeleine rejects his renewed advances, saying she would rather face death. Then, as she despondently remembers her mother, who has been murdered, and the palace, which has been reduced to ashes, and Bersi, who has been selling herself for her sake, she offers Gèrard her own body in the hope of saving André. Gérard is deeply moved by this gesture. He declares his readiness to attempt a rescue of Chénier himself. The crowd us enjoying the spectacle of tribunal trying alleged traitors to the revolution. They are akk executed without being given a chance to defend themselves. Only CHénier is given an opportunity of saying his last words, and defends himself valiantly. Gérard admits that he has betrayed him and wants to withdraw the charge. However, the crowd clamours for his death. André Chénier is condemned to death by the guillotine.  Act 4 In the courtyard of the prison of St. Lazare, which before the revolution was the monatery of Saint Vincent de Paul, André commits his last poem to paper. He sings the song to his friend Roucher, a prisoner like himself. It is a hymn to poetry, in whose arms he is about to die. The jailor admits Madeleine, and Gérard to the prison. Gérard has obtained permission for Madeleine to talk to André for the last time. In return for gold and jewellery she persuades the jailor to let her take the place of Idia Legray, a prisoner condemned to death. Thus she will be able to perish at André’s side. Gérard, whose tragic love has made him agree to this fateful solution, is prepared to make one further attempt at rescue – the last: “Robespierre will have to help us!” Madeleine and André talk with one another for the last time. It is only a temporary parting, for both die in the certainty that after death they will be reunited in a new life. The jailor calls out two names: André Chénier and Idia Legray. Gérard’s last attempt at rescue has been in vain…